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Saturday, August 19, 2006

Known Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Baseball

Total Drugs
19
47 Players
A list of the performance- enhancing drugs
mentioned, and presumably used, during Baseball's Steroid Era. These drugs include steroids, steroid precursors (prohormones), steroid masking agents, and stimulants. Most common names for drugs are listed first.

Anavar (Oxandrolone, Lipidex, Anatrophill, Lonavar)

Medical Use: Steroid used to expedite wound healing and in treatment of hepatitis, cancer, and AIDS wasting. Also used to treat children with growth deficiencies.
Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery. Generally considered to be the safest of all steroids.
Side Effects: Similar to other anabolic steroids, but to a much lesser degree. Very few side-effects.
Implicated or Admitted: Jose Canseco

Andriol (Testosterone Undecanoate, Mexican Beans)

Medical Use: Steroid used in treatment of testosterone deficiency, including hypogonadism, andropause and related conditions such as delayed puberty in boys.
Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery. A fast-acting steroids believed to clear the user’s system within a few days.
Side Effects: Liver Damage, Acne, Sterility, High Blood Pressure, Enlarged Prostate, Gynocomastia (Development of breast tissue in males), Virilization (Development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Gary Sheffield

Clomid (Clomiphene Citrate, Serophene)

Medical Use: Female fertility drug. Changes the hormone balance of the body.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Enhances the effect of testosterone and masks use of steroids on drug tests.
Side Effects: Headaches, hot flashes. Can exacerbate pituitary gland tumors.
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, Bobby Estalella

The Clear (THG, Tetrahydrogestrinone, Norbolethone)

Medical use: None. An undectectable BALCO steroid. Related to gestrinone, a synthetic hormone used to treat the female gynecological condition endometriosis, and trenbolone, used to improve muscle quality in beef cattle.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Elite athletes were told "the clear" was a steroid "undetectable" by conventional steroid tests.
Side Effects: Unknown. Likely similar to other anabolic steroids."
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Marvin Bernard, Armando Rios, Randy Velarde, Gary Sheffield, Bobby Estalella

Clenbuterol (Ventipulmin)

Medical use:Used to treat airway obstruction in horses. Outside of the U.S. it is prescribed to sufferers of breathing disorders, such as asthma, as a decongestant and bronchodilator.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Clenbuterol is used for its ability to reduce body fat and increase skeletal muscle mass. Body builders and athletes use Clenbuterol after steroids to balance the resulting catabolic phase and obtain maximum strength and muscle mass.
Side Effects: Headaches, Tremors, Cramps, Restlessness/nervousness, Anxiety, Insomnia, Sweating, Increased appetite, Nausea, Palpitations, Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Implicated or Admitted: Jason Grimsley, Juan Gonzalez

The Cream (Testosterone-Epitestosterone Cream)

Medical Use: None. A BALCO steroid. A mixture of testosterone and epitestosterone, a naturally produced substance with no known function.
Performance-Enhancing use: Builds strength. Undetectable on drug tests which measure the ratio between testosterone and epitestosterone. Helps to balance this ratio while on steroids.
Side Effects: Unknown. Likely similar to other anabolic steroids.
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Marvin Bernard, Armando Rios, Randy Velarde, Gary Sheffield, Bobby Estalella

Creatine**

Medical Use: None. Tested favorably in teatment of Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid Retina.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Known to be 'perfectly suited' for baseball. It enhances a body chemical called ATP, which provides energy bursts that allow a person to accelerate, or create torque from a stationary position. Pecisely what is needed for swinging a bat or throwing a pitch. Shown in studies to increase the intensity of training workouts, enabling faster and more pronounced muscle growth.
Side-effects: Unknown long-term effects. Few short term effects, none known, but allegedly can cause muscle, tendon, and ligament strains, and diarrhea.
Implicated or Admitted: Mark McGwire, Steve Finley

Deca-Durabolin (Deca, Nandrolone Decanoate)

Medical Use: Prescribed to treat anemia associated with kidney failure, as well as AIDS wasting.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Popular with body-builders, it builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery.
Side Effects: Less severe than most anabolic steroids. Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted Users: Jose Canseco, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Mark McGwire, Barry Bonds, Jason Grimsley, Lenny Dykstra, Ivan Rodriguez*, Juan Gonzalez*, Rafael Palmeiro*

Depo-Testosterone (Testosterone Cypionate)

Medical Use: Prescribed for any type of muscular wasting.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Another muscle-building steroid long used by body-builders.
Side Effects: Baldness; Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds

Ephedra (Ephedrine)

Medical Use: Diet pill, Stimulant, Ancient Chinese: hay fever, asthma
Performance-Enhancing Use: stimulates the brain, increases heart rate, expands bronchial tubes (making breathing easier), good for working out. Amphetamine-like.
Side Effects: May include irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, vomiting and hyperthermia. Chemical dependence may also develop.
Implicated or Admitted: Steve Bechler

EPO (Erythropoietin, Epogen, Procrit)

Medical Use: Improves the ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen.
Performance-Enhancing Use: An artificial hormone that allows the blood to carry more oxygen, thus boosting endurance. It is favored by endurance athletes and has saturated such sports as professional cycling and cross-country skiing.
Side Effects: Circulatory strain as well as damming (clotting) in smaller blood vessels.
Implicated or Admitted: None in baseball.

Equipoise (Boldenone Undecylenate, Boldabol)

Medical Use: To aid in treating debilitated horses when an improvement in weight, haircoat, or general physical condition is desired.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Considered a long-term anabolic steroid, can last for eight weeks.
Side Effects:High blood pressure, testicular atrophy, liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted: Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Matt Lawton

Human Growth Hormone (hGH, Somatropin, Serostim)

Medical Use: Used to correct stunted growth in children with hormone deficiency, and to treat AIDS wasting.
Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds muscle and strengthens connective tissue, and decreases recovery time, especially when taken in combination with steroids or insulin. Some users report improved eyesight.
Side Effects: Thyroid deficiency, acromegaly (a condition marked by growth of hands, feet and head), enlarged heart, cancer.
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Jason Grimsley, Jeremy Giambi, David Segui, Jose Canseco, Paxton Crawford, Wilson Alvarez, Tony Saunders, Mark McGwire, Bobby Estalella, Armando Rios, Lenny Dykstra, Jim Leyritz

Increlex (Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, IGF-1)

Medical Use: Treatment for growth deficiencies in children.
Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds muscle and strengthens connective tissue, and decreases recovery time, especially when taken in combination with steroids or insulin.
Side effects: Less severe than hGH. Use by adults or any overuse can cause thyroid deficiency, acromegaly (a condition marked by growth of hands, feet and head), enlarged heart, cancer.
Implicated or Admitted: None

Insulin (Humulin, Novolin)

Medical Use: Treatment of diabetes.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Works like a steroid to build muscle, especially when taken with hGH.
Side effects: Sudden drop in blood sugar, potentially fatal "diabetic coma."
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds

Modafinil (Provigil)

Medical Use: Prescribed for and sleep disorders including, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and excessive sleepiness.
Performance-Enhancing Use: A stimulant.
Side Effects: Mild to moderate severity including headache, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhea, back pain, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, and dyspepsia.
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds

Prohormones (Andro, Androstenedione, 4-androstenedione, 19-norandrostenedione, 19-norandrostenediol, 1-AD, 19-nor)

Medical Use: none.
Performance-Enhancing Use: A direct hormone precursor that aids in testosterone production, and in turn lowering their body fat, building muscles and aiding workouts.
Side Effects: Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted: Mark McGwire, Rico Brogna, Derrick Turnbow, Termmel Sledge, Jason Grimsley

Stanozolol (Winstrol, Winthrop, Stromba)

Medical Use: Prescribed for hereditary angioedema, which causes episodes of swelling of the face, extremities, genitals, bowel wall, and throat.
Performance-Enhancing Use: For 'definition', you don't gain that much weight with it, but you still get stronger. Often used by pitchers who want stregth but not bulk.
Side Effects: Less damaging to ligaments than most anabolic steroids. Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Rafael Palmeiro, Benito Santiago, Paxton Crawford, Ivan Rodriguez*, Juan Gonzalez*

Testosterone (Liquid Testosterone, Injectable Testosterone)

Medical use: The hormone is responsible for development of primary and secondary male physical characteristics, including genitalia, fat distribution, and muscle and bone mass.
Performance-Enhancing Use: Testosterone can give athletes an edge by helping them trim body fat and build up muscles. It can ingested easily via an injection, a patch to the skin, or a cream onto the arms and torso.
Side Effects: Liver Damage, Acne, Sterility, High Blood Pressure, Testicular Atrophy, Enlarged Prostate, Gynocomastia (Development of breast tissue in males), Virilization (Development of male characteristics in women).
Implicated or Admitted: Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Armando Rios, Jose Canseco, Juan Gonzalez, Rafael Palmeiro, Ivan Rodriguez

* In Juiced, Jose Canseco said that Ivan Rodriguez, Juan Gonzalez and Rafael Palmeiro were all on a combination of Winstrol and/or Deca-Durabolin, hGH and liquid testosterone

** Creatine is a controversial but legal supplement. It is not a banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) or Major League Baseball.

 
The List
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Suspended for non-analytical evidence that player violated MLB drug policy.
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